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The Policy of Communal Representation got recognition of the British Government through the Government of India Act of 1935, for the first time.The famous Communal Award of Ramsay Mac Donald, which created separate communal electorates for the depressed classes, Sikhs and Muslims was vehemently opposed by Gandhiji himself who fasted ‘into death’ as a protest.Much later, in 1918, the British Rulers recognized in the Mont- Ford Report the claims of separate representation for the Sikhs.
However, reservation of jobs (8.33%) for the SC’s (and not for I he STs) in the Government in pre-independent India began since 1943.Art 16 ensures ‘equality of opportunity for all in matters relating to employment under the state. 46 were rightly placed in Part IV of the Constitution, entitled ‘Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP), ensuring Socio-economic justice to the Scheduled caste.Further, ‘protection from social injustice’ and ‘special care and privileges’ were granted for the ‘promotion of educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people’, (that is the S. In this direction, a positive step was taken in 1951 and to over-rule the Supreme Court decision in Champakam Dorairajan case, the first Amendment Act was passed in the Provisional Parliament in 1951.335 makes it very clear that the claims of the members of the S.Cs and STs in the making of appointments to Services under the Union and the States should be consistent with the “maintenance of efficiency of administration”.The SCs and STs got requisite representation in the Union Parliament and the State Legislatures.Reservation of jobs in the Government for SCs and STs has been provided under Arts 16 and 335.For clarity and precision, it may be wiser to examine the appropriate constitutional arrangements and safeguards laid down in Arts 14, 15, 16 and 335. To strengthen this provision, prohibition of discrimination only on grounds of religion, caste, sex, place of Birth or any of them has been ensured in Art 15 and Art 16.Any ‘unfavourable differential treatment by the state’ on aforesaid grounds has been categorically under constitutional protection (Art 15).In the recent years, they claim to be known as ‘Dalits’ or depressed class. They have a large-concentration in south- central Indian states like Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.Each caste, sub-caste varies in strength, from a few hundreds and thousands to a large bulk of twenty to thirty thousands. Most of the tribes speak different dialects and languages.