Non-state Security Actors The breakdown of authority at the local and state levels has created the enabling environment for the emergence of a complex informal security sector in Zamfara.
Competing and rival armed and criminal gangs operate freely in the state in the name of vigilantism.
Between January and April 2019 a number of operations by the Nigerian Army, such as Abubakar Balarabe Mahmoud, “The Judiciary and Democratization in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges”, Lecture delivered at the 36th Annual Aminu Kano Memorial Symposium, Aminu Kano Center for Democratic Studies, Mambayya House, April 17, 2019.
However, the armed bandits seem to be expanding the scope of their operations beyond Zamfara and into the neighboring states.
“The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they aren’t true, but they are incomplete.
They make one story become the only story.” These are Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie words in her TED talk about the danger of single story.
There are widespread allegations of corruption against state security operatives, police, judges, village heads, and even some vigilante groups.
The public institutions responsible for offering protection and delivering justice are unable to bring bandits to justice due to inadequate resources and widespread extortion.
On April 11, 2019, the Governor of Katsina state, Aminu Bello Masari, spoke of how bandits were taking over parts of the state, killing people and destroying property with impunity.
Competing Narratives There are competing narratives regarding the causes and nature of the problem of armed banditry in Zamfara and neighboring states.