Hate crime victimization, 2004–2012 statistical tables (NCJ 244409).
Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.
Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.
Some laws also include sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, and disability.
The federal hate crime system includes laws, acts, and data collection statutes.
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 requires that the U. Sentencing Commission enhance criminal penalties (up to 30%) for offenders who commit a federal crime that was motivated by the victim’s race, religion, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation. The first, the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990, requires that the U. Attorney General collect data on all crimes that are motivated by the victim’s race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or disability.
Since 1992, the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have jointly published hate crime statistics on an annual basis.
Hate crime laws in the United States exist at the federal and state levels.
Although federal and state laws differ, most protected characteristics include race, national origin, ethnicity, and religion.
Not all believe that hate crimes have been a significant problem in society; rather, some see it as a media-exaggerated issue—a product of a society that is highly sensitive to prejudice and discrimination.
Thus, a special set of criminal laws that include hate is not warranted, and the generic criminal laws will suffice.