Essay References Bibliography

(which literally means and others): (Almeder et al., 2001). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. It includes texts you made use of, not only texts you referred to in your paper, but your own additional background reading, and any other articles you think the reader might need as background reading.

Some styles prefer the word and, others prefer the ampersand (& symbol).

Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (Mc Lanahan & Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999).

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system.

The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.

Secondly, you make your essay look more professional.

In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly.What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system.Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002).Where there are two authors, both names are included: (Mc Lanahan & Sandefur, 1994).The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002).You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication.Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]).Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them.If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from.This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book.


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