Canadian Essayists

With social change, including advanced education for women (in 1875 Mount Allison was the first university in the British Empire to award a woman a bachelor's degree), women extended their influence in literature and the community (Women and Education, Status of Women).

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In , which was later adopted in 1921 as the national motto, A Mare Usque Ad Mari.

In 1873, the newly formed North-West Mounted Police would carry order west and north.

In the interconnected short sketches of (1896), Scott introduced psychological realism into narrative form, eulogizing rural Quebec life on the verge of urban change.

With their stories of the lives of animals, Roberts and Ernest Thompson Seton--best known respectively for (1902) and Wild Animals I Have Known (1898)--were even more popular.

Such debates helped direct national politics; they also underlay the concerns and techniques of the new national literature.

Many writers in late Victorian and Edwardian Canada debated the relation between science and morality (Intellectual History) John William Dawson, Andrew Mac Phail, Daniel Wilson--embraced the principles of the Scottish Common Sense Movement.1829), where education was deemed to encourage leadership and good breeding among boys.Ideas were crossing disciplinary boundaries while technology and real life were altering social boundaries. Although in 1880 the Quebec pianist Calixa Lavallée composed the music for what later became the Canadian National Anthem, "O Canada," a more familiar patriotic song at the time in anglophone Canada was Alexander MUIR's imperialist "The Maple Leaf Forever" (1867).Male writers, too, achieved some popular success internationally, though many are now largely forgotten. James de Mille's speculative Timber Trade History) - instead of relying on the romantic glow of an imaginary past. Campbell together reshaped poetry from the 1880s till the 1920s.Grant Allen and Albert Hickman featured detectives and the paranormal. Many literary historians still regard the members of "Confederation Group" as the dominant literary figures of the late 19th century. While they differed from each other--Carman captivated by song rhythms and the "Unitrinianism" of Mary Perry King, Scott holding to a belief that the First Nations were "a dying race," Roberts often celebratory, Lampman often dour--they were all influenced by the later English Romantic poets and the American Transcendentalists.Fredericton and Montreal became creative centres, and in Toronto the --provided space for discussion of science, technological change, politics, and moral progress, as did the Royal Society of Canada (est. New technologies, such as the telephone, electric light, and the motorized engine, would serve development over the next four decades.Canadian writers, often publishing abroad, still faced economic pressure and the colonial restrictions of international copyright law, but social services, such as free education for children, would advance, and political boundaries expand.Phillips Thompson pointedly argued that the labouring class was largely excluded from prevailing theories of progress. Outside the country, the Canadian border was frequently represented as a guarantee of justice and freedom: for example, as "Jordan, the crossing to the Promised Land" in African-American song, and as the protective "Medicine Line" to Blackfoot, Lakota, and other Indigenous nations.The short fiction writer Susan Frances Harrison insisted that her work be published in Canada because foreign publishers kept distorting the local idiom she was using. Though 19th century Black tales in Canada were not collected till 1931, folksong and folktale (Folklore) did record many of the events of the time; several songs allude to the Red River Rebellion and the Klondike Gold Rush.With Confederation came immediate calls for Maritime separation but also a quickened interest in the growth of a national culture.Journalists and academic essayists earnestly disputed Canada's political destiny.


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