Squealer’s subsequent announcement that the executions have ended the Rebellion connects them to the period of the Red Terror, however.
Orwell leaves some ambiguity in the identities of the Rebellion and the Battle of the Cowshed.
For example, Snowball’s and Napoleon’s power struggle is a direct allegory of Trotsky’s and Stalin’s.
Frederick’s trade agreement with Napoleon, and his subsequent breaking of the agreement, represents the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact that preceded World War II.
Orwell cements this idea in the book’s final scene, where he writes, “Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike.
No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs.
These ambiguities help the reader focus on the overall satire of Stalinism and the broader warning about the evils of totalitarian government.
’s 1996 Signet Classics version, Orwell’s pessimism stemmed from his having grown up in an age of dictatorship.
It can hide under the guise of the “greater good” as it did in the Soviet Union before the totalitarianism became obvious.
Orwell uses a cyclical structure in , which helps advance the idea of totalitarianism’s predictability.